Double strand of DNA & Global or Local effects
Understanding the impact of the environmental effects on mechanical and physical properties of DNA stay a decisive challenging to well understanding living cells. As everybody knows, DNA is an essential component of the cellular machinery, playing a crucial role in lot biological processes such as transcription or replication. As explain in From the DNA molecule to the chromatin fiber inside cell nucleus section, DNA adopted a lot of conformation from the commonly-know double helix form to packaging chromosome form.
It was experimentally found that DNA is a polymer which can stiffen, abruptly bent or be partially denatured in function of its sequence. This local events radically alternate the physicals properties of the DNA molecular in term of flexibility and elasticity.
Better understanding the physics of this molecule is crucial. In those framework studies, we develop tools to quantify, both experimentally and theoretically the impact biochemical changes and intrinsic DNA characteristics on the mechanical properties of a DNA molecule.
All project focusing on the double stranded DNA molecule using the Tethered Particle Motion (or TPM) method and Monte Carlo simulations mimicking the experimental setup in order study the DNA behavior and its properties.
TPM is a experimental single molecule technique which consists in grafting one end of the DNA molecule (of length LDNA) on a substrate and a nanometric particle (with a radius Rpar) at the other end. The complex DNA-particle is free to fluctuate in solution. Moreover, the IPBS group in Toulouse, which has a recognized expertise in TPM techniques, has developed a biochip of high-throughput High-throughput (ht-TPM), that enables the high parallelization of TPM and the analysis enough molecules simultaneously (Plénat T., et al.).
Tethered particles can be visualized (simply by dark-field microscopy) and its motion over time is followed. In that way, the 2D projection of the bead displacement relative to the anchoring point of the DNA molecule gives access to its root-mean-squared end-to-end distance projected on the grafting surface, noted Rexp||, also called amplitude of motion. The amplitude of motion directly depends on the apparent length of the DNA molecule, reflecting biophysical properties of the DNA molecule, conformational changes, molecule stiffness.
The TPM technique is well adapted to address questions concerning conformational changes of the DNA molecule such as curvatures, or denaturation bubble formation. Since conformational degrees of freedom are not hampered by any external constraints with TPM method. The use of a biochip, ht-TPM technique, enables the parallelization of DNA/particle complexes and the tracking of conformational dynamics of hundreds of single DNA molecules in parallel. This biochip ensuing high-throughput data acquisition, allows to obtain a large accumulation of individual statistics that permits to get results with a good accuracy.
Performing Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the particle-DNA complex enables predicting the particle to anchor 2D-distance. The current simulation model is based on statistical model of polymer described at the mesoscopic scale (Manghi M., et al.). To simulate the TPM geometry, the DNA-particle complex is model as a chain of N connected small hard spheres/beads (from 25 to 50 beads) of radius a=2nm and a larger final particle of radius Rpar. Numerical displacement of the labeled particle is obtained using Monte Carlo algorithm. The internal structure of the double-stranded DNA is not considered at this level of modeling. In addition, the polymer motion is limited to the upper half-plane, impose by hard-wall boundary conditions and the first joint is considered as a freely rotative joint to the glass coverslip (Soel L., et al.), (by fixing the first sphere center at a height above the surface).
The 2D-vector of the particle position is measured throughout simulations and utilized to estimate the amplitude of motion and average being taken along the trajectory. The resulting Rsimu|| from the simulations, would be compare at the Rexp|| from TPM experiment measurements.
The calculation of the root-mean-square end-to-end distance of the DNA molecule RDNA from the Rexp|| or Rsimu|| requires an appropriate theoretical model and to be corrects form the effects of the particle
With the classical Worm-Like chain model (Kratky, O. and Porod, G.), the amplitude of motion of the DNA-particle complex, which taking into account the persistence length of the DNA, derived from the 〈RDNA2〉calculated for an isolated DNA molecule:
The analyze of the particle position at equilibrium (thought the distribution/histogram of 2D projected particle displacement) exhibit strong agreement between experiments and simulations (for similar LDNA and Rpar , of courses )
Local intrinsic DNA bending
Combining experimental, numerical and theoretical tools allows us to develop a method of evaluation and quantification of local DNA bending angles. DNA bending can be induced either by specific intrinsic sequence, or by the binding of proteins along the DNA. Here, we exploited the specificity of PolyA DNA sequences. Constructs made of 575 base-pair DNAs with assemblies (in-phase or in opposition of phase) of one to seven sequences CAAAAAACGG, (6A), are used. The central region of the DNA molecule contains n copies of a 6A sequences, which are predicted to be bent.
We proposed a theoretical description of the polymer chain, named "kinked Worm-Like Chain", (kWLC) in order to evaluate the global bending angle θ induced by 6A-tract assemblies sequences. First, this kWLC model is used to fit simulated ht-TPM amplitudes of motion Rsimu|| in the present context. We assume then that each of the n successive 6A-tracts inserts in-phase imposes the same bending angle θ1 and postulate as a first order simplification hypothesis that θ=nθ1. The extrapolated fitting parameters leads to a simple formulation of the end-to-end distance of DNA molecules.
This simple equation allowing to extract local bend angles from ht-TPM measurement. As a result, we find that one 6A sequence induces a bend angle of 19◦ ± 4◦ in agreement with other value from the literature. We believe that this new approach will permit the refined characterization of DNA geometry in various contexts and to shed new light on DNA–protein complexes.
Find the detailed study in the publication : Brunet, A., Chevalier, S., Destainville, N., Manghi, M., Rousseau, P., Salhi, M., Salomé, L., Tardin, C., Probing a label-free local bend in DNA by single molecule tethered particle motion, Nucleic acids research, DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.5b00735. Clic here for the pdf
Global ionic strength conditions
The ionic strength, I, depend on surrounding ions in solution and induce changes in the DNA polymer stiffness/rigidity, characterized by the DNA persistence length, Lp. Using ht-TPM single-molecule experiments, Lp of two DNAs, of 1201 and 2060 bps, is measured in solutions for a large of well-controlled ionic strengths range, from I=10-2 to 3 mol/L with Na+ and with or without Mg2+ ions.
Numerical simulation permit us to refine the persistence length extraction way from experimental data in order to accurately determine Lp values. Since at this level of coarse-graining, electrostatic interactions are not included, we varied the bending modulus of the simulated DNA by hand such that Lp spans the range 36−70 nm. This reflect the stiffening due to the decrease of the ionic strength in the solution. Moreover the presence of the particle that interacts with both the substrate and the chain induces a non-constant shift to higher values of Rsimu||. To better take into account the substrate−particle interactions, the simulated data are fitted by a quadratic polynomial law. Then this polynomial law is used to determine Lp from Rexp|| collected from ht-TPM experimental data (meaning resolving inverse problem to extract Lp).
This quantification of Lp dependence, on a large and strongly prospected range of ionic strengths, exhibit higher Lp at low ionic strengths (meaning DNA molecule is more rigid) and lower Lp at high I (meaning the DNA molecule is more flexible when the solution is more salty). Indeed, a rise in I provokes an increasing screening of the repulsive phosphate ions of the backbone, which leads to a more flexible DNA chain
Several theoretical equations forLp (I) are fitted to the ht-TPM experimental data. Among the different theories developed to explain the variations of Lp with the ionic strength, I, the most famous is the Odjik−Skolnick−Fixman (OSF) theory, (Odijk T. and Skolnick J. and Fixman M.). In addition, the first Manning theory, (Manning G.S.), which take into account counterion condensation around the DNA at low I, was compared to experimental data. Unfortunately, no decisive theory is found which fits all the Lp values for the two ion valencies. The second theoretical approach proposed in 2006 by Manning G.S., tend to explain Lp (I) variation in presence of monovalent ions Na+ only.
We explore a variation approach by proposing an interpolation formula that fits all our experimental Lp over the complete range of probed ionic strength and for the two ion valencies :
The extracted Lp values of ht-TPM measurement decrease from 55 to 30 nm when the ionic strength increases. A stronger decrease was observed in presence of divalent ions Mg2+ than with monovalent ions Na+. The fits with this extrapolated formula are in good agreement with experimental data for both Na+ and Mg2+ ions.
Find the detailed study in the publication : Brunet, A., Tardin, C., Salomé, L., Rousseau, P., Destainville, N., Manghi, M., Dependence of DNA persistence length on ionic strength of solutions with monovalent and divalent salts: a joint theory- experiment study, Macromolecule, DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkv201. Clic here for the pdf
Local & global temperature effect
This study take advantage of our capacity to detect subtle changes occurring on DNA by using ht-TPM over temperature range, to question the existence of bubbles in double stranded DNA under physiological salt conditions through their conformational impact on DNA molecules ranging from several hundreds to thousands of base pairs.
As long as the DNA keeps intact its double stranded structure, Lp varies as the inverse of temperature, assuming that its bending modulus depends only weakly on the temperature, T, (Wilcoxon J. and Schurr J.M.). Rising temperature induces a significant decrease in the raw amplitude of motion of the DNA-tethered particle as well as in the relaxation time of the particle. We demonstrate that this latter effect combined to the limited capacities of the detector causes a significant experimental bias in TPM data. After correction, the amplitude of motion of the DNA-tethered particle exhibits only a slight decrease with temperature. Consequently, the DNA persistence length shows a limited decrease with temperature as expected for intact double stranded DNA molecules. Fits display in the figure per each DNA length are performed between 15 and 60◦ according to the dependency law of Lp in function of T :
Under spontaneous thermal fluctuations, DNA base pairs may break to give rise to transient opening of the dsDNA. This local conversion of a few bp of dsDNA into two single stranded DNA (ssDNA) corresponds to the formation of the so-called DNA bubbles, which are ∼25 times more flexible than dsDNA (Pal T. and Bhattacharjee S.M. and Manghi M. and Destainville N.). We explore the influence of temperature on the mechanical characteristics of an internal sequence composed of 50 adenines (A50) more prone to denaturation than random sequences, and do not detect any temperature effect. Although our results seem at odds with recently published ones at first sight, we could clarify the reasons for these differences and show that our finding leave open the question of a biological impact of temperature on double stranded DNA.
Find the detailed study in the publication : Brunet, A., Salomé, L., Rousseau, P., Destainville, N., Manghi, M., Tardin, C., How does temperature impact the conformation of single DNA molecules below melting temperature? Nucleic acids research, DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkx1285. Clic here for the pdf
Chromatin fiber & Lamina-associated domains
As explain in From the DNA molecule to the chromatin fiber inside cell nucleus section, the current views of the three-dimensional (3D) genome inside the nucleus of cell is not random but depict a hierarchical architecture of the genomic material.
Much of our knowledge of the genome however still depends on a one-dimensional, linear, representation of a reference genome. It is now clear though that 3D analyses of the genome, enabled by development of wet-lab and computational methods enhance, the information content of genomic studies and give new insights into gene regulation and disease mechanisms (Dekker et al.). For example, genomic characteristics identified and mapped onto a linear genome may be differentially organized in the 3D nucleus space; this may result in interpretations of these features that are not visible in one dimension.
Combining experimental data and big data analyzing to probes 3D conformation of the chromatin fiber inside the nucleus
Topological associated domain, TAD
The mammalian genome is organized into compartments of active and inactive chromatin (Lieberman-Aiden E., et al.,) and within these, regions of high-frequency chromosomal interactions termed topologically-associated domains (TADs). TAD are typically 10kb to 1-2 Mb, have well defined borders (or boundaries) along the linear genome, which are enriched in binding sites for cohesin and the chromatin insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF).
Lamina-associated domain, LAD
The genome is also radially organized (canter-to-periphery positioning), with lamina-associated domains (LADs) anchoring chromatin to the nuclear lamina, at the nuclear periphery (Guelen L., et al.). The nuclear lamina, a meshwork of A-type lamins [lamins A and C], products of the Lmna gene, and B-type lamins [lamins B1 and B2], encoded by the Lmnb1 and Lmnb2 genes respectively, at the nuclear periphery (Burke B., and Stewart C.L.,) also constitute one mechanism of regulation of gene expression (van Steensel B. and Belmont A.S.). As such, lamin-chromatin interactions play an important role in the radial positioning of loci in the nucleus. LADs are typically 0.1–10 mega-bases (Mb), gene-poor, enriched in heterochromatin and display low gene activity. Regions of chromatin interacting with lamins, so-called lamina-associated domains (LADs), are typically heterochromatic and relatively well conserved between cell types (Peric-Hupkes et al.,). However, other LADs are variable and altered during differentiation (Peric-Hupkes et al.,). It remains however unclear to what extent variable LADs arise and disappear as a consequence of regulatory mechanisms or through random interactions of chromatin with nuclear lamins. Whether individual loci or broader domains such as LADs display oscillatory interactions with nuclear lamins has also to our knowledge not been addressed.
Modeling of 3D genome conformation
Past decades computational approaches to model the human genome in 3D have increase. Those models explore news fundamental aspects of higher-order chromatin conformation and more and more models tent to implement time dimension to study the dynamics of various process.
Local3D : local modeling approaches to probe dynamics of LADs formation
In order to probe the dynamic of LAD formation, here we propose a new numerical model based on Monte Carole algorithm mimicking chromatin-lamins interaction appearing at the nuclear periphery. The current simulation model is based on statistical model of polymer described at the mesoscopic scale. The chromatin fiber on this Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, is model as a chain of N connected small hard spheres/beads (from 12 to 50 beads) of radius a=30nm. The modeled chromatin fiber include both, free beads (blue and gray beads) and some fixed bead (red beads with dark cross). Numerical displacement of the labeled free beads (blue and gray), corresponding of free chromatin region, is obtained using Monte Carlo algorithm. To mimicking LADs geometry and constraints induce by chromatin-lamins interactions, each simulation included 1 or 2 anchoring point (red beads with dark cross) at one or both end of the modeled chromatin fiber. Those beads reproduced anchored chromatin point at the nuclear lamina. Over the simulation time anchoring point are fixed and unable to moved. Moreover, along the simulation some beads may go through close distance or contact with the nuclear lamina interaction (red beads, without red cross, in lower middle panel). However, if no mention of adsoption potential, those bead which could form a de novo LADs respect previously defined numerical displacement using the same Monte Carlo algorithm as for free blue and gray beads. In the detailed Local modeling of LAD formation dynamics section, attractive spherical potential is added in the simulation model.
The internal structure of the chromatin fiber is not considered at this level of modeling. In addition, the polymer motion is limited to the interior of the nucleus, impose by hard-wall boundary conditions and the first joint is considered as a freely rotative joint to the nuclear periphery.
Chrom3D : global modeling approaches recapitulating 3D genome conformation
UIO, in Oslo, has a recognized expertise in Chrom3D, (Jonas P. et al.), a computational 3D genome structural modeling framework to integrate TADs and LADs constraints. TADs constraints defines the size of beads, which is proportional to the genomic size of TADs, and intrachromosomal interactions corresponding to significant pairwise TAD-TAD interactions (both identified from Hi-C data). In addition, LADs constraints define the radial positional constraints (center-to-periphery) based on the association of TADs with nuclear lamina (identified from lamin ChIP-seq data). All the beads are within a sphere of given radius equal to 5μm mimicking cell nucleus
Chrom3D is based on Monte Carlo optimization with the goal of minimizing a loss-score function. The optimization process starts from random self-avoiding chromosome structures. The result of one simulation is a 3D modeled structure of the entire human genome where the concept of chromosome territories is respected and TADs(beads) including LADs constraints tend to be more peripheral.
Differential anchoring strength of lamins protein to DNA at the NM
Lamins A and B proteins can form LADs that overlap but can also be distinct, suggesting redundant but also complementary roles of A- and B-type lamins in the modulation of radial genome conformation. To address the relationship between CsA drug exposure (drug-induced hepatotoxicit) and genome organization, we examined here the effect of CsA on the association of chromatin with nuclear lamina.
Western blot analysis shows that exposure of HepG2 cells to CsA did not alter levels of lamins A/C and B1; however CsA elicited significant pre-lamin A accumulation. Accumulation of pre-lamin A at the nuclear envelope however suggests that interactions of chromatin with the nuclear lamina could be altered
To determined whether LADs were remodeled in CsA-treated cells. We mapped laminB LADs (from here on called ‘B-LADs’) and lamin A LADs (‘A-LADs’) by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) of lamin B1 and lamin A/C, respectively. To further investigate the relationship between A-LADs and B-LADs, we divided these into LAD classes associated with lamin A only, lamin B only and both lamins A and B (‘A-only’, ‘B-only’ and ‘A-B’ LADs) and analyzed the properties of these LADs in control and CsA-treated cells.
In addition, the fate of these LADs is followed using an alluvial graph representation of the extent to which A-only, B-only and A-B LADs remained unaltered or turned into another LAD class with CsA. This analysis shows that (i) A-B LADs mostly remain ‘A-B’ while a smaller fraction loses lamin A to become B-only. (ii) Strikingly, most A-only LADs lose lamin A and become inter-LADs while the remaining switch to B-only or become A-B. (iii) B-only LADs mainly remain B-only, while ~30% turn into A-B, demonstrating a de novo acquisition of lamin A on B LADs. (iv) De novo A-only and B-only LADs appear in inter-LAD regions, albeit in minor proportions. LAD dynamics is overall unlikely to be driven by transcriptional changes.
To assess whether a gain or loss of LAD or a change in LAD identity would coincide with change in the radial positioning of these domains, we generated 3-dimensional (3D) models, using Chrom3D modeling, of the HepG2 genome and analyzed properties of the models. Analysis of the models shows that A-B, A-only and B-only LADs are as expected more peripheral than inter-LADs, and between LAD classes, A-only LADs are more centrally placed than A-B or B-only LADs. We next estimated the radial repositioning of each LAD class according to their fate in CsA-treated cells. Loss of lamin association altogether correlates with repositioning of loci towards the nuclear center. Moreover, retention of a LAD class does not result in significant repositioning.
To independently validate Chrom3D model predictions on locus repositioning, we designed FISH probes to loci found in specific LAD classes in the ChIP-seq data. We also positioned in Chrom3D models the loci targeted by each FISH probe and measured their distance from the nucleus center. FISH analysis shows that maintenance of an inter-LAD does not alter radial positioning, consistent with modeling predictions. Similarly, we observe no repositioning after formation of A-B LADs from A- or B-only LADs, or after loss of an A-only LAD. However, loss of a B-only LAD reveals locus-dependent repositioning towards the nuclear center. Lastly, a switch from an A-only to B-only LAD correlates with peripheral locus repositioning. All of this validate model predictions.
Results suggest that a key contributor to A-B LAD stability is lamin B, which appears to be more stably associated with chromatin than lamin A. In other words, a gain of lamin B1-chromatin association is the main predictor (over lamin A/C) for radial positioning of genomic loci towards the nuclear periphery.
Find the detailed study in the publication :Forsberg, F., Brunet, A., Ali, T. M. L., Collas, P., Interplay of lamin A and lamin B LADs on the radial positioning of chromatin, Nucleus, DOI: 10.1080/19491034.2019.1570810. Clic here for the pdf
Oscillating pattern of DNA-lamins interactions at the NM
Many mammalian genes exhibit circadian expression patterns concordant with periodic binding of transcription factors, chromatin modifications, and chromosomal interactions. Here we investigate whether chromatin periodically associates with nuclear lamins.
Thousands of mammalian genes exhibit autonomous oscillatory patterns of expression concordant with the circadian (24 h) rhythm (Hastings et al.). The circadian rhythm is governed by central and peripheral clocks, respectively in the nervous system and in individual organs including adipose tissue, lungs and liver, controlled by transcriptional and translational negative feedback loops (Takahashi, J. S.). The core clock is regulated by the CLOCK and BMAL1 transcription factors (TFs) which drive expression of clock-controlled genes including Per, Cry, Nr1d1/Nr1d2 (encoding REV-ERB alpha/beta proteins, respectively), and Ror genes (encoding ROR alpha/beta/gamma), by binding to E-boxes in their promoters. The PER-CRY repressor complex inhibits activity of CLOCK–BMAL1, lowering transcription of Per and Cry and generating a negative feedback loop. RORs and REV-ERBs act as activators and repressors, respectively, of Arntl (also called Bmal1) and other clock genes, driving their rhythmic transcription. Stability of PER and CRY proteins is regulated by post-translational modifications leading to their time-dependent degradation, enabling a new cycle of CLOCK–BMAL1-driven gene expression
RNASeq and LaminB1-ChIPSeq
To entrain the circadian clock, mice were subjected to 24 h fasting and refed ad libitum from circadian time CT0 (Tahara et al.,). Livers were collected every 6 h until CT30, and from non-synchronized (NS) mice 18 h before the fasting period. Procedures were approved by the University of Oslo and Norwegian Regulatory Authorities. Total RNA was isolated from livers of five mice at each CT. Transcript level and differential gene expression were estimated and determined. Moreover, ChIP of LMNB1 was done for liver pieces. LMNB1 ChIP-seq and input reads were mapped and mapped reads were used to call LADs.
We used MetaCycle, (Wu G. et al.) to identify genes with periodic expression patterns from RNA-seq data generated in biological triplicates at each CT. MetaCycle measures the goodness-of-fit between RNA-seq FPKM and cosine curves with varying periods and phases. The extrapolated periodic function best fitting the data is selected and significance is determined (Fisher’s exact tests) after scrambling FPKM values. From the period distribution for all 17,330 expressed genes in liver (expressed at least at one time point), we focused on oscillations with 12, 18, 24, and 30 h periods (each ± 3 h, half the time resolution in our study)
Entrainment of the clock was confirmed by periodic expression of the core clock genes Clock, Arntl (Bmal1), Cry1, Per1, and Nr1d1, assessed by RT-qPCR and RNASeq analysis of their periodicity using MetaCycle tool. We find that nearly 20% of oscillations are circadian (24 h period; 3,046 genes), and thousands of genes oscillate with periods within the circadian rhythm and beyond, in line with previous reports (Zhu B. et al.). Among these, a subset displays highly significantly oscillating transcripts. Within a given period, mRNA oscillations occurred with distinct phases : oscillations are in phase (Φ = 0, time at first maxima) and opposition of phase (Φ = Π), and for 18, 24, and 30 h periods, are also offset by one-quarter cycle (Φ = 1/2 Π and Φ = -1/2 Π). Significantly periodic genes include the core clock genes. We also defined a set of 204 “non-periodic” genes with mRNA levels discordant (1 > P > 0.9999) with any cosine curve tentatively fitted by MetaCycle.
We next examined variations in LADs more closely during the circadian cycle. These occur by LAD extension or shortening, sometimes resulting in a fusion or splitting of LADs, or by formation and dissociation of entire LADs. We therefore devised a strategy to quantitatively characterize the genomic coverage of these variable LADs over time. We determined for each LAD the maximal genome coverage (covmax ) in the CT0–CT30 time course as the union of LAD coverage across all replicates and CTs, and ascribed to covmax a reference value of 1 (see panel 1 of the following figure). The 5′ and 3′ boundaries of this covmax area provided genomic coordinates for measures of variations in LAD length within this area. For each CT and replicate, variable 5′ and 3′ LAD lengths were extracted and standardized from 0 to 1 (covmax ), 0 referring to the complete disappearance of a LAD, and 1 corresponding to the entire LAD being present over the whole covmax area (see panel 2 of the following figure). We then used MetaCycle to identify any periodicity in the extension or shortening of LADs within the covmax area (see panel 3 of the following figure), where MetaCycle applied a cosine curve best-fitting genome coverage variations at the 5′ and 3′ end of LADs. Ascribing a stringent P value of < 0.005 (Fisher’s exact test; as in our MetaCycle RNA-seq analysis) returns 10 highly significantly periodic LADs with periods distributed throughout the circadian cycle (see lower left panel). Relaxing the P value to P < 0.05 expectedly increases the number of periodic LAD borders to 77 (30 5′-periodic, 47 3′-periodic, and 13 both 5′- and 3′-periodic) among 64 distinct LADs. However, inspection of the profiles of these LADs revealed, for some of them, discrepancy with the best curve fitted by MetaCycle. This led us to focus our subsequent analysis on the 10 LADs identified above at P < 0.005, which we hence forth refer to as periodic LADs (see lower right panel). Altogether, our data indicate that significant periodicity in LAD border interactions with LMNB1 only concerns a minor set of LADs. Thus, the majority of LMNB1–chromatin interactions are conserved during the circadian cycle
We conclude that there is no correlation between periodicity in gene expression and variation in gene-to-nearest LAD distance. Moreover, the central clock-regulating genes are typically megabases away from the nearest LAD, and promoter regions of these genes are also essentially devoid of LMNB1 interaction at any CT
Find the detailed study in the publication : Brunet, A., Forsberg, F., Fan Q., Sæther T., Collas P., Nuclear Lamin B1 Interactions with Chromatin during the Circadian Cycle Are Uncoupled from Periodic Gene Expression, Frontiers in Genetics, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00917. Clic here for the pdf
Local modeling of LAD formation dynamics